The increasing digitalisation of our societies creates new vulnerabilities both to accidents and to intentional threats. Malevolent individuals and organisations may, without any physical presence, infiltrate all possible networks, including the most sensitive ones, modify the behaviour of applications and compromise data.
Every individual as well as governmental, non-governmental and business organisation may be targeted. Hence the growing concern of cyber threats, whose characteristics relate them more to human security than to traditional security approaches: they transcend international boundaries, mostly concern civil societies, are in essence asymmetrical and have a crucial human rights dimension.
We focus here on EU policies in the field and their specificities. They end up in shaping a distinctive EU approach to cyber security that does reject the kind of technological determinism and mass surveillance that tends to characterise the approaches of most other national and international actors.